The building envelope is a critical component of any facility since it both protects the building occupants and plays a major role in regulating the indoor environment. Consisting of the building’s roof, walls, windows, and doors, the envelope controls the flow of energy between the interior and exterior of the building. The building envelope can be considered the selective pathway for a building to work with the climate-responding to heating, cooling, ventilating, and natural lighting needs.
This section includes:
- Walls and Roofs
- Climate Considerations
- Doors, Windows, and Openings
- Thermal Efficiency
- Moisture Buildup
For a new project, opportunities relating to the building envelope begin during the predesign phase of the facility. An optimal design of the building envelope may provide significant reductions in heating and cooling loads-which in turn can allow downsizing of mechanical equipment. When the right strategies are integrated through good design, the extra cost for a high-performance envelope may be paid for through savings achieved by installing smaller HVAC equipment.
With existing facilities, facility managers have much less opportunity to change most envelope components. Reducing outside air infiltration into the building by improving building envelope tightness is usually quite feasible. During reroofing, extra insulation can typically be added with little difficulty. Windows and insulation can be upgraded during more significant building improvements and renovations.
The building envelope, or “skin,” consists of structural materials and finishes that enclose space, separating inside from outside. This includes walls, windows, doors, roofs, and floor surfaces. The envelope must balance requirements for ventilation and daylight while providing thermal and moisture protection appropriate to the climatic conditions of the site. Envelope design is a major factor in determining the amount of energy a building will use in its operation. Also, the overall environmental life-cycle impacts and energy costs associated with the production and transportation of different envelope materials vary greatly.
|Garis dan bidang dapat dijelaskan dalam dua cara terbentuknya.||Garis dan bidang dapat dijelaskan dalam dua cara; (1) secara matematik dengan analisa persamaan(aljabar), atau(2) melalui gambaran geometri dengan bantuan peralatan geometri. Dalam cara yang pertama garis digambarkan dengan teknik secara bertahap sesuai dengan acuan dalam sistim koordinat yang berlaku. Hal tersebut tentunya memerlukan peraturan yang cukup sulit, memerlukan banyak waktu dan tidak selalu tepat; seseorang dapat saja selalu merasa keliru, kehilangan lokasi yang tepat bagi sebuah titik, sehingga muncul garis yang keliru. Untuk ’menggambar’ garis dalam sebuah lahan, yang didasarkan pada formula matematis merupakan pekerjaan yang sangat sulit. Baca lebih lanjut|